“A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Chavilah, where there is gold. (The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin and onyx are also there.) The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is the Tigris (or Hiddekel); it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.” Genesis 2: 10 -14
Eden is where the river of the Garden originated, and then bifurcated into four headwaters or rivers.
Keep in mind that, in the beginning, the earth was one uniformed mass that broke apart not too long after the fountains of the great deep burst open during the great flood.
“Now the earth was formless and empty.” Genesis 1: 2
“…on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open…” Genesis 7: 11 (during the great flood)
“Two sons were born to Eber: One was named Peleg, because in his time the earth was divided…” Genesis 10: 25 (after the great flood)
All indications are that that water source from Eden had its origin in Turkey, where two of the world’s biggest rivers – the Tigris and the Euphrates, as mentioned in the bible – have their provenance.
The other two headwaters with their modern names are the Nile (or Gihon in the land of Cush, Africa) and the Volga (or Pishon, which wound through Chavilah’s eastern regions encompassing modern Russia, a land chock-full of gold and a major producer of resin.).
The Nile flowed out from Eden’s water source and reached all the way to South America, when that continent was attached at the hip to Africa. As the Nile basted through Ethiopia and cut through Congo via tributaries and underground reservoirs, it ended up feeding the massive Amazon River using the Congo River, the 2nd largest river in the world by discharge after the Amazon – no coincidence there.
The Volga was the other headwater. The water source bifurcated from Eden in the Middle East through various tributaries and reservoirs, and headed east toward the Caspian Sea, giving Europe (especially Russia) its biggest river, the Volga, which in turn fed a) China’s two greatest rivers – the Yellow River and the Yangtze – that accordingly even today flow West to East (China is also chock-full of gold and the largest producer of resin in the world), and b) the great Danube which itself fed the Great Lakes of North America, whose subterranean arteries pumped full of water all that Continent’s rivers. Thus the whole of earth was irrigated through that one source from Eden, itself fed from the great deep.
But once the fountains of the great deep burst open during the great flood, new subterranean waterways and rivers were formed. New land masses – from the uniformed bulk that cracked – took shape and drifted apart while the planet’s shell broke into tectonic plates. Many inter-connected rivers – like the Nile and the Volga’s connections to Turkey’s water source – lost their hook ups on the surface, which disappeared under massive land shifting – even though most of the important underground arteries stayed intact.
It’s no coincidence that after the flood Noah’s boat landed on Mount Ararat in Turkey, where life started anew and where it originally began in the first place, though no one can or will ever be able to pinpoint the exact location of the Garden itself.
“So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.” Genesis 3: 24